Electrons and Protons Button for link to Chinese version of this page

Electrons and protons: Along with neutrons, formed very early in the history of the universe, about one millisecond into time, when the universe was about a trillion degrees (1,000,000,000,000) Kelvin (13.7 billion years ago). The protons and neutrons and electrons appeared during this part of the first second known as the particle era, part of the Hadron Epoch. This was followed by the Nucleosynthesis Era, when the protons and neutrons started fusing together and then breaking apart for a few minutes. Today electrons and protons make up atoms of visible matter. Electrons and protons in turn are made up of various quarks, smaller probability fields and particles.

Links about the Electrons and Protons:
  1. It is easy to find many good pages describing physics lessons on electrons and protons and atoms. One lesson we recommend is by Anthony Carpi, hosted at the Vision Learning site.
  2. Here are some astronomy notes by Karl Gebhardt that describe the particle era and other eras of the early universe.
  3. Here are some lecture notes by George L. Cassiday describing the epochs of the universe, including the Hadron Epoch.

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This work by Eric & Chun-Chih Hadley-Ives is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.