|Ottoman Architecture’s Classical Period|
The Classic Age of Ottoman Architecture was a time of beautiful mosques, palaces, and fortresses could be said to stretch from the completion of the Üç Şerefeli mosque in Edirne (in 1447) to the completion of the Blue Mosque (the Sultanahmet Camii) in Istanbul in 1616. For for about 170 years the Ottoman Sultans commissioned a variety of structures from several architects, Important architects include Atik Sinan, Mimar Sinan, and Sinan’s student, Mehmet Ağa. The most famous architect was Mimar Sinan (who lived from about 1489-1588).
Three cities contain most of the classical Ottoman markets, mosques, and palaces: Istanbul, Edirne, and Bursa. Others can be found in Iznik, Konya, and scattered around the cities that were under the Ottoman Empire’s dominion in the 16th century. Many of the structures built during this period were damaged or destroyed by fires, wars, and earthquakes, but some have survived, and some were reconstructed or restored with faithfulness to the original designs. Most domestic architecture of this era was constructed of wood, and has since been destroyed by fire, flood, or war.
Üç Şerefeli Camii in Edirne is begun in 1438, completed in 1447. The architect is unknown.
Bayezid II Camii (the Beyazit Complex) in Edirne is completed in 1488. Hayreddin is the architect (or perhaps Yakub Shah bin Sultan Shah was the architect, authoritative sources do not all agree).
The Beyazid II Camii in Edirne (1488), includes a large surviving complex of buildings, built at the same time as the mosque, that have been used as schools, baths, a medical school, and a hospital for persons with mental illnesses. The image above contained the kitchen and bakery for the complex.
The Beyazit Camii in Amasya is completed in 1486.
The Mosques (Camii) of this era were built as complexes, with tombs (Türbe), schools (madrassas), hospitals, courtyards with fountains, supported living facilities for persons with disabilities or mental illnesses, public markets, minarets, and libraries sometimes attached or located close to the mosque. The dominant features are domes and arches, with tiles, calligraphy, paintings, stained glass, lamps, and carpets enriching the decorated interiors. There were some exchanges of ideas between the Renaissance architecture taking hold in Europe at this time and the Ottoman aesthetic.
The Sultans who were the patrons of this era include:
Mehmed II (ruled 1444-1446, and 1451-1481)
The Ottoman Empire was at its peak of power during the administrations of these six sultans, and this was also a time of flourishing architecture. Two later Sultans, Mehmed III (ruled 1595-1603) and Ahmed I (ruled 1603-1617) saw the beginning of the stagnation and eventual decline of the Ottoman Empire, which finally collapsed in 1922.
|Links about Ottoman Architecture:
|Vasco da Gama, Francisco Pizarro|
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